by Alyson Schenker-Deerfield Beach High School



Analysis: 10th grade Language Arts class

Unit Connection to previous lessons: Students have just finished a unit on formal essay writing in the connection to effective written communication.

Unit connection to future lessons: This unit will serve as a starting point in studyingand analyzing the next unit on the novel

Overall Objective: Understand the importance and impact of the elements of plot in the context of an orally narrated story and how each story we tell has the basic elements of plot.

Objective 1: Define the elements of plot: setting, rising action, climax, denouement/falling action.

Objective 2: Recognize these elements of plot in a oral story told by someone else

Objective 3: Reiterate and explain these elements to the class in an effective fashion

Objective 4: Recognize and explain the plot elements within a Sherlock Holmes short story


Our lives are made up of little stories, little episodes that we usually tell other people about. What you did over the weekend, something exciting that happened to you at practice, what happened when you when on a date, what you saw on TV last night, etc. Think of a story you would or have told your friend. You would start from the beginning, talk through the middle, and conclude with the end of the story, right? It wouldn’t make sense if you started from the middle, talked about the beginning then the end. Most authors of stories and novels tell stories like we do. And just like the stories we tell our friends, their stories have a beginning, middle, a high point, a low point, and a conclusion so the stories make sense to the reader who is following along. These things are called "Elements of Plot."

MINI LESSON ON: definitions and examples of setting, rising action, climax, denouement/falling action. Use of chart on overhead. Students will be required to take notes on these elements.

*Plays, novels, and short stories have these elements within their stories. Although it may not be obvious or in this exact order, these elements are present.

Q & A to check for understanding

EXERCISE: We’ll begin with a fun exercise so you can see my point. Let’s break up into pairs, each person will take a turn to tell a short story about something that has happened to him/her lately. The listener will jot down:

1. where the story is taking place (setting)

2. the events that began the story (rising action)

3. the high point of the story (climax)

4. the events leading to the conclusion (denouement)

Please list the elements and label them as you see here. These directions will be placed on the overhead so you don’t forget the elements. You will have 20 minutes to complete the exercise, then each person will share the elements of his/her partner’s story. Turn them in as you leave class


Advance Organizer: 3 minutes

Mini Lesson: 10 minutes.

Q & A: 5 minutes

CoOp Activity 15 minutes (7 1/2 min. per student story)

Group Sharing 12 minutes

Total 50 minutes

Assessment: Grades based on completion of assignment and oral presentation. Students will have to recognize elements of plot on paper and rationalize their choice during oration.

Homework: Have dittos prepared with Homework assignment so as not to waste time. Pass out dittos to predetermined 4 groups and assign one Sherlock Holmes story to each group to read:

"The Speckled Band" "The Dancing Men"

"A Scandal in Bohemia"

"Silver Blaze"

"(name of story assigned)"

While reading the story assigned to you, summarize the plot and jot down any pertinent clues. Then, write down (in your own words) the 4 elements we talked about today in class. Be prepared to discuss them tomorrow and hand in your work.

You will be graded based on grammar, content, and style.


Overall Objective: Understand and identify the plot elements and contextual clues within the Sherlock Holmes story assigned

Objective 1: Reiterate the plot elements and summary to cooperative group members

Objective 2: Explain to group members about each element and why your identification of each element is correct.

Objective 3: Assess what is reiterated by cooperative group members to try to solve the mystery presented

Objective 4: Understand the definitions of : antagonist, protagonist, and catastrophe in the context of plot.

SPACE: Break class into four groups, with one member representing a different Sherlock Holmes story. I will have desks prearranged with name tags when students enter. This will give students a chance to work with students they have not worked with as of late.

REVIEW: Student volunteers to reiterate the main points of yesterdays material and Q&A.

ACTIVITY: Using last night’s homework, each group member takes a turn delineating his/her reading assignment’s setting, rising action, climax, and falling action. HOWEVER, before orating the climax, give your group members hints and a summation of the rising action and see if they can solve the mystery. You will have 30 minutes and I will be available to you as I walk around the room.

MINI LESSON: Definitions and examples of:

HOMEWORK: Since you have used your keen observation to identify the elements of plot in last night’s homework assignment, I want you to read the 3 stories you have not read and focus on this idea of keen observation, and how Sherlock Holmes used this ability to solve even the toughest of mysteries. Pay close attention to his conclusions about people and places using only his keen eye. List stories on the board so students can copy it in their notebooks.


Settling in: 3 minutes

Review: 5 minutes

Activity: 30 minutes

Mini-Lesson: 12 minutes

ASSESSMENT: Students’ will be graded on accuracy and grammar of their written work and participation in their group activity.




Overall Objective: Appreciate the importance of keen observation and using the

imagination to understand the people and world.

Objective 1: Understand the differences between seeing and observing

Objective 2: Identify, within the context of the Sherlock Holmes stories, how an

effective observer operates

Objective 3: Analyze the important personality differences between Holmes and

Watson and the reciprocity of their friendship

Objective 4: Synthesize a complete short story based on careful observation and

deduce conclusions using the imagination about the person(s) observed.


Although we should never pass judgment on people based on their appearance, we can see in Sherlock Holmes that you can deduce certain things about people based on their observable characteristics. Even Holmes says, "It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to turn facts to suit theories instead of theories to suit facts." Seeing, as Watson does, is different from observing. Seeing only implicates a fleeting episode where no thought is employed. Observing, on the other hand, causes is to have a direct interaction with the world and the people in it. Observing and seeing are comparable to the differences between living and existing -between hearing and listening. Since all people have to live together on this earth, observing them will help you know more about the world around you.


Discussion Questions

*If we didnt pay attention to the world and the people in it, what would life be like?*

1. According to Holmes, what are some of the characteristics of a keen observer?

2. What are some of Holmes’ grounds for the conclusions he draws about the people he meets?

3. If Watson, as mentioned in the story is not as keen of an observer as Holmes is, what is his purpose in this partnership?

4. Why do you think the author chose Watson to narrate their mysteries? Why not Holmes? Why not an outsider?

5. Why does Holmes’ like Watson’s company?

6. Do we find these kinds of friendships today?

7. What kind of personality differences are there between Holmes and Watson?

8. In "Silver Blaze" Holmes mentions "were the inspector but gifted with an imagination he might rise to great heights in the profession." What does this mean?


SUMMATION of the main points of the discussion. We have determined that a keen observer deduces logical conclusions by using concrete facts and the imagination is key in determining solutions and scenarios. In order to find things out about the world and the pople inhabiting it, we have to keep a close eye on what is happening around us, as well as use our imagination to draw conclusions and solutions to make our lives better.

HOMEWORK: Now I am going to present you with an activity that will help you refine your observational skills as well as exercise your imagination. (Pass out dittos with assignment details and go over them aloud)

-Go to the mall over the weekend and pick a cozy spot

- pick someone or some couple to watch

- Note the following in any system you choose. The easiest ways is to just jot

down notes in a numerical list

1. specific facial features and expression

2. hairstyle and color

3. jewelry

4. clothing appearance: fit and style

5. hands: appearance and movement

6. description of figure

7. shoes: kind and appearance

8. packages (which store or note if none)

9. walk: describe

10. handbag/pouch

Then, review your observations THE SAME DAY while they are fresh in your mind. Sherlock Holmes doesn’t wait until the last minute to review his findings, you know. Compose a short story with your imagination based on the facts you have gathered. I want a word processed grammatically correct stories; in addition, within your story, please lightly mark in pencil , within the margin the following plot elements:


rising action


falling action/denouement

catastrophe (if any)



Be sure, just as an experienced author, to think the elements through in the context of your observations!!! We will share these stories on Monday, and I will be using them to publish a class book for Open House, so your parents can see the great work you compose.

ASSESMENT: Based on participation in group discussion


DAY 4-5

Overall Objective: Understand the plot elements from previous lessons in order to narrate an original short story, identify plot elements and observations that help create the story and identify and analyze these elements in classmates’ short stories

Objective 1: Analyze oral narration of short story for each plot element assigned

Objective 2: Communicate those elements and deduce reasons in an effective fashion

ESTABLISHING SET: Go over protocol of presentation listed on the board. Today, you are not students. You are authors who will present your stories to a group of avid book readers that may challenge your ideas and identifications of plot elements. Be prepared to speak as well as listen.

ACTIVITY: Students present stories in front of the class (sitting on a stool). As a group, we will discuss the features of each observe that led the student to create their story. Have student volunteers identify the plot elements and give their opinions regarding each story. Explain protocol

Posted on blackboard:


Discuss the notes you took and the characteristics of the person you observed

Read your story out loud

Call on student volunteers to identify each plot element (one for each element). If their identification differs with yours, listen carefully to their reasons and debate fairly if necessary.

Take opinions of story from volunteers


Listen carefully to the story and its progression


Volunteer to identify the plot elements and explain your choice. If your choice does not agree with the author, listen to his/her reasons and debate fairly if need be.

Feedback about the story itself MUST BE FAIR. Communicate effectively with words that would not be insulting or harsh.

WRAP UP: Get students to voulenteer their opinion on the activities they were assigned for this unit on short stories. Discuss their opinion on observation and imagination, and how these two combined effect their lives.

ASSESMENT: Based on class participation, effective communication, and essay quality.

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